Cause, Symptoms and Treatment of
High Blood Pressure
WHAT IS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE?
Blood pressure is the force of blood that pushes against the walls of blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Hypertension (HBP) means pressure in the arteries It is higher than it should be. Another name of the high blood pressure is hypertension. Blood pressure is written in two numbers, like 112/78 mm Hg. The upper systolic number is the pressure when the heart beats. The lowest and diastolic number is the pressure when the heart Rest between beats.
Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg. If you are an adult and your systolic pressure is From 120 to 129 and the diastolic pressure is less than 80, there is a high blood pressure. high arterial pressure is a systolic of 130 or more, or 80 diastolic or more, which remains high over time High blood pressure usually has no signs or symptoms. That’s why it’s like that dangerous. But it can be administered. Almost half of the US population over the age of 20 have HBP, and many do not even know it. Do not treat hypertension is dangerous. HBP increases the risk of heart attack and stroke.
CAUSE OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
About 4 % of all cases of hypertension if it is possible to attribute it to a type of kidney (kidney) disease. Domina lineages For example, they are determinants in the regulation of body volume and the balance of sodium (salt) and water. If the kidneys retain too much sodium, the volume of the fluid body increases. In turn, this increase in fluid volume increases the load on the heart to maintain an adequate flow of blood to the tissues. The kidneys also produce renin, an enzyme that plays a key role in regulating blood pressure. About 2-3% of all cases of hypertension are the result of a kidney infection or recurrence of nephritis (kidney infection caused by High Streptococcus bacteria). But cases all chronic kidneys can cause high arterial capture. An example is damage to the blood vessels of the kidney caused by diabetes. Therapy to lower blood pressure, especially if the urine test shows an indicator of renal deterioration. However, if you must keep in mind that long-term and poorly controlled hypertension can cause kidney damage. In fact, about 25 percent of patients who need kidney dialysis have kidney failure, which is two when compared to hypertension. This is especially true in the African-American population.
The renal arteries, which carry blood to both kidneys, branch off from the abdominal aorta. A narrowing in one or both of the renal arteries results in reduced blood flow to the kidneys. This causes the kidneys to try to increase blood pressure to improve their blood supply. To do this, the kidneys increase their secretion of renin, an enzyme that, through a series of biochemical changes in the kidneys and lungs, causes a substance called angiotensin II This is a potent vasoconstrictor, a medical term used to describe substances that cause narrowing or narrowing of blood vessels. This constriction produces an increase in blood pressure. This substance also increases the secretion of a hormone, aldosterone, which leads to the retention of salt and water, further increasing blood pressure.
Renovascular hypertension is rare (1 to 2% of all hypertension cases), but is relatively more common in the elderly who may have a generalized hardening of the arteries. Tends to occur more frequently in smokers. It sometimes occurs in children, due to an infection or an inflammatory condition. In fact, renovascular hypertension is one of the most common causes of hypertension in young children and should be suspected in any child under 10-12 years of age with high blood pressure. Less frequently, renovascular hypertension may be due to an inflammatory disorder that affects the muscles surrounding the arteries and controls its diameter. This type of renovascular hypertension occurs more frequently in young women, although it is occasionally seen in men. It also tends to develop more frequently in smokers than non-smokers.
Some medications can increase blood pressure. Examples include contraceptive pills, 5-10 mm Hg in many women and a significant increase in about 1 in 30-50 women. The use of cortisone or other steroid drugs and some over the-counter medications, which include diet pills, arthritis drugs, as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, indocin, Naprosyn, etc. And nasal decongestants can also increase blood pressure. Glycyrrhizic acid can also increase blood pressure if consumed in large quantities. In almost all these cases, blood pressure usually returns to normal when the causative agent stops. In some cases, the use of one of these drugs may unmask a case of previously undiagnosed hypertension.
• Don’t smoke and avoid secondhand smoke.
• Reach and maintain a healthy weight.
• Eat a healthy diet that is low in saturated and trans fats and rich in fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and vegetables.
• Aim to consume less than 1,500 mg/day of sodium (salt). Even reducing your daily intake by 1000 mg can help.
• Eat foods rich in potassium. Aim for 3,500 – 5,000 mg of dietary potassium per day.
• Limit alcohol to no more than one drink per day if you’re a woman or two drinks a day of you’re a man.
• Be more physically active. Aim for at least 90 to 150 minutes of aerobic and/or dynamic resistance exercise per week, and/or three sessions of isometric resistance exercises per week.
• Take medicine the way your doctor tells you.
• Know what your blood pressure should be and work to keep it at that level.
INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Moderate exercise, combined with weight reduction and a low-salt diet, is an important component in any non-steroidal hypertension treatment program. Some studies have shown that increased exercise can produce a moderate decrease in blood pressure. It also helps burn calories and control excess weight and increases the feeling of well-being. A recent and well-controlled study of 4 months reported, however, that blood pressure was no longer reduced in those who completed a regimen of vigorous aerobic activity compared to the control group. Physical activity should not be a rigorous or regulated cardiovascular conditioning program taking a walk, playing tennis regularly, biking and swimming are excellent means of relaxation and provide almost all the benefits in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk due to strenuous exercise. Nor is it necessary to devote time to daily training, unless you want studies to show that 15-30 minutes of moderate exercise three times a week provide the desired results. The exercise should be comfortable and enjoyable; otherwise, you are likely to give up after an initial enthusiasm. Also remember that many daily activities, traveling two or three flights of stairs, working at home or in the garden, are excellent forms of exercise. A long-term study Nearly 17,000 Harvard students found that those who burned 2,000 calories more per week in moderate activities such as recreational sports, or walking or climbing several flights of stairs a day, had a lower death rate than their more sedentary counterparts. .
A moderate exercise program plus a low salt diet can reduce blood pressure between 1 and 10 mm Hg systolic and between 1 and 8 mm Hg diastolic. If you start with a pressure of 145/95 and it’s one of the lifesavers, your pressure can drop to less than 140/90 and you will not have to take any medication. Unfortunately, and contrary to what some popular media say, non-pharmacological treatment methods will only be effective in 20-25% of cases of hypertension. In addition, some treatments without medications are very questionable. (See the box, “Alternative without drugs” Treatments of questionable value. “) So even if we all want to control our destiny and not depend on drugs, most people with hypertension will have to take some medications to reduce their blood pressure to normal levels.